Venture Review



Junko Ishiguro/Takeru Ohe

Entrepreneurship Awareness and Enterprising Tendency of the College Students of JAPAN and ASEAN

The purpose of this study is to reveal the entrepreneurial characteristics of the college students in Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Caird's General measure of Enterprising Tendency Test(GET2) is adapted to assess the level of entrepreneurial characteristics of the participants in this survey. This test measures five essential qualities: the need for achievement (NACH), need for autonomy (AUT), the creative tendency (CT), calculated risk-taking (RT), and internal locus of control (LOC). Also, we asked students if they had wishes and confidence to be entrepreneurs. The results of this survey reveal some features of these countries. Firstly, over half of the respondents have both wishes and confidence to be entrepreneurs in Indonesia and Brunei. Secondly, the scores of Enterprising Tendency Test are high in the Philippines and Lao PDR, whereas the score is the lowest in Japan. Thirdly, there are no significant gender differences in the results of Enterprising Tendency Test, whereas males are more likely to have wish and confidence to be entrepreneurs than females. Fourth, parents who have working experience as self-employed influence their children's entrepreneurial awareness positively in Japan, the Philippines, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Brunei. Finally, the ratio of the students who have both wishes and confidence to be entrepreneurs accounts for the highest proportion of the respondents in Brunei, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Myanmar. The results of this survey are expected to be utilized to facilitate understanding of ASEAN region and Japan and to develop effective entrepreneurship education programs.

Key words:ASEAN, entrepreneurial awareness, entrepreneurial characteristics, college students, entrepreneurship education

Case Study

Yoshihiro Eshima/Yoshikazu Fujino

Developmental Disorders and Entrepreneurship

Objective of this paper is to explore the positive and negative phenomena of being developmental disorders in the entrepreneurship context.
There are several anecdotes that the internationally well-known entrepreneurs are diagnosed as ADHD. However, there are not enough empirical evidences; Further, the
mechanism between ADHD symptom and entrepreneurial actions are yet unclear. We attempt to fill in this research gap.
Two related researches were undertaken. First, we established qualitative rich data set of Japanese entrepreneurs with developmental disorders and overviewed their characteristics and dispositions of those entrepreneurs. Second, we chose two entrepreneurs from the data set and analyzed for the association of being developmental disorders and entrepreneurial actions. As a result, five propositions/insights were induced. Theoretical implications as well as future research were discussed.

Masayuki Nakayama

The Process of Creating Student Start-ups

This qualitative study traces the process of student start-ups. It aims to analyze and clarify the subjective micro process of student start-ups, in which the student considers becoming an entrepreneur as a future career option, and even after graduating the student's desire to set up and promote his or her own business as a main career increases. This study consists of text messages of emails, data of conversations obtained by participant observation and semi-structured interviews with student entrepreneurs. All data was analyzed via the Modified Grounded Theory Approach and those results divided the process into four specific categories: (1)Groping and structuring the mind; (2)Discovery of the mission; (3)Trial and error of project implementation; (4)Outcome and expansion. Also two factors found to affect the process: (1)Pressure of norms and time; (2)Encouragement from colleagues. From these results, we can conclude that rather than making the decision to become an entrepreneur, by gradually advancing with the process shown in this research entrepreneurial motivation is fostered, which in turn leads the student to the decision of creating his or her own business.


Case Study

Shigeru Fujimori / Takashi Natori

How Does Top Management Team Create Core Technologies in a Start-up?

Previous studies suggested that it was more effective to start a venture by forming a team with members having different expertise and nature rather than doing it by one entrepreneur. This paper aims to clarify the contribution of a top management team in the creation of core technologies that require advanced scientific expertise, which will affect bio-venture's growth and performance. With regard to the relationship between a top management team and organization's achievements, many researches have been executed in upper echelons perspective. However, some issues have been pointed out that the concrete processes including division of roles and interaction are unknown. This case study deals with the generation of innovative nucleic acid medicine platform "Bonac Nucleic Acid" executed by the cutting-edge pharmaceutical research firm, Bonac Corporation. The generation process was analyzed in detail by in-depth interviews. This paper concludes that in addition to the contribution of an outstanding scientist, a manager in business role played an important role in creating core technologies by interactions with the scientist.

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